For service providers, the prospect of Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is based on greater efficiencies and opportunities for business innovation. Fundamentally, virtualization is about scaling operations and capital investments more efficiently to agilely deliver network services. Multiple system operators (MSOs) are beginning to realize the power of cloud scalability and new operating efficiencies through the virtualization of their network functions. The initial promise of virtual network functions (VNFs) has been lacking. Replicating and porting code from a physical appliance to a virtual machine without addressing the underlying software architecture resulted in a false start for what was supposed to be a networking revolution. Lessons have been learned, and the lift and shift of existing code to be wrapped in virtual machines has proven to be a clunky and inefficient use of compute power and resources. It tends to miss the business objective of virtualization, which is to achieve greater CapEx and OpEx efficiencies.